Wednesday, September 9, 2020

Maharaja Bhupinder Singh Punjab Sports University Patiala Admission Notice Session 2020 – 21

 The Maharaja Bhupinder Singh Punjab Sports University, Patiala Admission Notice Session 2020 – 21

                                                                 (Extension of Date)



1. The dates to registration of various courses has been extended as follows:-

a) B. Sc (Sports Science) & B. Sc (Sports Nutrition & Dietetics)     : 20 Sep.2020

b) PG Diploma in Yoga, PG Diploma in Sports Management 

c) M. Sc (Yoga)

d) BPED (2 Years) Course in all physical education colleges (Govt, Govt. Aided and Private, Self- financed) Affiliate/ constituent.  colleges of Punjab university; Guru Nanak Dev University;  Punjabi university Maharaja Bhupinder Singh Punjab Sports University.: 30 Sep.2020


2. The interested candidates can apply online on the University website www.mbsps,pgsgcpe.com. online registration for all the above mentioned courses is mandatory.


Contact No. +91-94-80091, +91-88375-74060


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Tuesday, September 8, 2020

CHANDIGARH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, JOINT ADMISSION COMMITTEE (JAC) – 2020

 JOINT ADMISSION COMMITTEE – 2020 is a body constituted by the Chandigarh Administration for conducting admissions to various B.E. / B.Arch. / Integrated B.E. (Chemical) – MBA courses in the following institutions for the session 2020-21.

 



1.Chandigarh College of Engineering & Technology (Degree Wing), Sector – 26, Chandigarh.
2. Chandigarh College of Agriculture, Sector 12, Chandigarh.
3. Dr. S. S. Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering & Technology, Punjab University Chandigarh (formerly Department of Chemical Engineering & Technology).
4. University Institute of Engineering & Technology, Punjab University, Chandigarh.
5. University Institute of Engineering and Technology Punjab University S.S giri Regional Centre (PUSSGRC), Hoshiarpur.
 

Admission website: chdenggadmissions.nic.in
Online registration opens for first round:    15th September 2020
Registration close before first round:          1st October 2020.
More detail on the Academic Programmes, 

Eligibility criteria, Seat details in each course and their corresponding Reservation detail are available in JAC information brochure published at the admission website.
 

Applying for admission to any of the course available to above institutions involves the following:
 

•    Online registration at admission website
 

•    Online payment of a non – refundable registration fee, and filling the registration fee payment details.
 

•    Candidate will be required to upload requisite certificates/document during online registration.
Admissions will be made on the basis of JEE
(Main)-2020 all Indian Bank (AIR). There will be three rounds off online counselling followed by SPOT round of online counselling. Only the registered candidate will be able to participate in these rounds of counselling.
 

For more information and up updates please visit the admission website or contact admission.
Helpline number: 9872823280, 9816290720, 9412314479, 9888623825,  9041059379, 9779545045, 7087256535, 9779824320, 9814364343, 0172-2750947.   Email-Id: hpdesk@ccet.ac.in
 

1. Note: all the communication w.r.t Grievance/Clarifications will be accepted through email helpdesk@ccet.ac.in only.
 

2. The Terms and conditions and dates may be changed as per the decision of competent authority due to current pandemic situation of covid-19.
 

3. All further notices and updates regarding admission procedure will be made available on the JAC website. Candidates are advised to visit the website regularly.

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Monday, September 7, 2020

Generations of Programming Languages

Machine language is referred to as the first generation language. Low - level language or assembly language is referred to as the second generation language. The high-level procedural languages are called Third Generation language or 3GLs. The non - procedural languages which are closely associated with the modem database management system, specially designed for query processing and data manipulation are called the Fourth Generation Languages or 4GLs.

Compilers and Interpreters

Once programs are written in such high - level programming languages, they have to be converted ultimately into machine language. Vipul the CPU of the computer can understand only the programs written in the machine language. For this, there are the other programs available called as compiler and Interpreters, which read the machine language. These are all facilitated software development. With these high - level language Interpreters and compiler, the development of software packages has become much easier, and very complex software can be developed in very little time now.

For every high-level language that is existing, separate compilers or interpreters is required.

After writing programs in the language, it is to be compiled using the corresponding compiler and then linked into a machine code program.

Language Constructs

Every language provides various language Constructs that are helpful in writing programs. For the development of any software, the first requirement is to understand the basic concepts of the language data structures and programs and constructs. The following are the major constructs that are normally available.

Declaration statements

Assignment statements - Arithmetic and Logical


Input - output statements 


Branching statements- unconditional and conditional.


Looping input and output statements.


Procedures and functions 


Interrupt calling statements


OtherSspecial Structures.


The various elements of a language are to be written as per syntax and rules of the several variations to the observed in program structure are (I) syntax, (ii) The way of writing programs,(iii) Order for placement of different elements, and (iv) Arrangement of different language constructs.

A program in any language may consist of one or more of the following structures:

a) sequential structure, using the assignment and input/output statements, and consists of one action followed by another.


b) selective structure, consisting of a test for a condition followed by two or more alternative paths for the programs to allow. This is structure uses the IF......THEN... ELSE... Statements and sequential statements.


c) Repetitive structure, enclosing a set of operations which are repeated for a predefined number of times, of till some condition is satisfied. Do... CONTINUE, FOR.... NEXT. are integrative structures, which execute the enclosed statements the number of a time defined as arguments of the first statement.

The enclosed statement may be other simple sequential statements, are complete selective structures. DO loop can also be nested inside another DO loop.


Choice of Languages

The various type of high-level languages are 1)commercial language 2) scientific language

 3) special-purpose language 

4)command language 5)multi-purpose languages.

Of the many languages that are available, choosing the language for developing any application should be done based on the following factors:

I) familiar Rati of the language to programmers it the- programmers of an organization are used to a particular language, then as far as a possible the same language should be used, unless there are enough reasons to declare that the language is unfit for the particular problem in hand.


ii) The nature of application-the language should perform well in the given application satisfying the functional as well as performance needs.


iii) Reference for language that supports structured programming concepts COBOL,PL/I,Algol,Pascel is preferred in this regard.


iv) Availability of satisfactory translating software-the compiler for the language should be efficient and should the support facilities and would reduce the development cycle time.


v) Frequency of processing of the application- a program is to be processed every now and then,it is the desire that the runtime is short and storage space consumed with less which is possible when the program is written in assembly language. However, for limited- life jobs programs written in high-level languages are more economical.

(vi) frequency of program modification - it is easier to modify a high-level language program than an assembly language.


(vii) Probability of change of hardware - conversion of the high level language program is easier and faster for new hardware and the machine-oriented may have to be completely rewritten.


After writing a program, also called as coding, in a language, the next important phase of implementation are debugging, testing and documentation. These complete the process of programming development and implementation.


Complete Computer Programming Process for writing Programs:

The complete computer programming process followed by the programmer for writing comprises of the following steps;

Analysis: The programmer, first, master analyze the given problem to prepare for solution by computer i.e. to determine precisely what the problem involves and the best method of solving it. It is essential to know what is to be done before starting to do it. It essential that the programmer knows the purpose and the intent of the program before beginning to write the program. The planning of fully defining a specific solution to the point of implementation of the Computer is essential. Starting with a general view of the essential steps in a program, details are added layer-by-layer until a detailed plan, often inter form of a flowchart and/or several decision tables is produced.


Flowcharting: 

A flowchart is a diagram showing the steps that a computer will carry out a solve a given problem. It provides a clear problem definition and logical outcome of the solution. The given problem may not in a form that the computer can follow. But the flowchart clearly defines the sequence to be followed in solving the given problem. In the flowchart, the programmer writes the code of direct computer to solve the problem. The flow chart digital recording guide for the programmer, providing him with a clear picture of the sequence of operations. This sequence, not necessarily, is given by the statement of the problem directly, but involve by the experienced of the programmer. The flowchart also provides the program with an opportunity to check the logic of his solution to determine whether a has considered all possibilities or whether he has duplicated any considerations. The use of flowcharts gave the program and opportunity to experiment with several different approaches to solve a problem without coding each one and comparing the code. He merely compares the flowchart to determine the best approach. It may be understood the programs occasionally need to be modified, and it is simpler to change a program by looking at the flowchart than by looking at the actual code.


Coding: 

It is the writing of instruction in the form of code that computers can understand. For example, the programmer's code may be punched and two cards to produce the computer understandable code.


Debugging: 

It is the process of finding the removing errors (that might occur in the programming process or might be coding) from the computer program and producing a tested and working form. For debugging a program, test data or sampled data is used. The errors in logic would make the computer produce either no result of misleading results. With coding errors, the computer run is usually cut short and error is indicated.


Documentation:

In order that a computer program written by one person buy used by other, it is documented giving the information like title, author, data completed; computer system and Language; brief statement of the problem; input /output requirements; special operating instruction; flowchart of a program; listing of the ( program) code.


Production: it may be appreciated that the preparation of a complete and working computer program is a time-consuming process in all aspects as indicated above have to be completed. For debugging a program,a test  data of a sample data (representative of the kind of a data to be used in runs after debugging of a program) is used. a Rani using real data with potential of actually using the results is called production run.

In writing programs, it is observed that certain typical computation occur again and again. Once a programmer has a return a program for such calculations once, he needed not waste time in a writing it again and again every time. Subroutines are used to avoid wasteful reprogramming. In separate problem (called subroutine) is written,some number supplied to it and it can be referenced again and again by the number allotted to it.the main program will then call the subroutine by its predetermined name of a number and computer will repeat the steps and instructions involved in its execution. Similarly macro instruction are also used to simplify coding by operator, avoid  repetition and reduce error.the computer translates a macro into a series of a simpler instruction before executing a program containing it.

In order to increase the speed, programmer can use the technique of a multiprogramming. In this technique two or more programs can occupy the same main storage unit and be executed at the same time. While (lengthy) I/O operations of one program we being handed, the processor is essentially idle and can handle some (non-I/O) processing of the sound at the same time .such concurrent of several programs at the same time is called parallel processing.

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How does Programming or Coding work on Machines?

 As was mentioned above to learn existing, old software, it is enough to go through the manual and take guidance from people who already know how to use them to solve the problems .and in this, "only practice makes a person perfect".

On the contrary, if any custom software has to be developed, the program has to be made in a programming language for the computer to execute it. the programming language is a notation for the precise description of computer programs for algorithms. They are artificial languages, in which the freedom of expression that is characteristic of a natural language.

Computer language has gone through four generations of evaluation. The various computer languages are machine language, low- level language and high- level languages.

Machine language contains instructions in a form that allows the computer to perform them immediately without any further translations. Instructions in machine language are in the form of binary codes also called a machine code and a known as machine instructions. Machine instruction are also stored in the same way as data and each instruction corresponds directly to a hardware specialty is on the machine for which it is written. But, developing software packages using machine language proves to be very difficult because they are simply made of the change of 0's and 1's hence to make the development process much simpler, there are other languages formulated for the programmers to write programs easily.

Low - level languages are machine-oriented languages in which each instruction corresponds to or symbols a machine instructions. These low-level language instructions should be translated into machine language before the computer can execute them. Each computer manufactures normally designs a low- level language which closely corresponds to the particular machine language this language is called assembly language. Assembler language differs from the binary machine language this language chiefly in that operations and their operands can be referred to symbolically without concern for actual encoding for numeric which translates the 'Assembly language' into machine code but programming using program to be returned again and again for different machines.

High-level languages are designed basically to make the programming faster and to make the programs machine-independent. Sometimes they are called"user-oriented" languages to distinguish them from the machine-oriented assembler language. These programming languages are characterized by more powerful primitive operations and more powerful control structures than are available to machine language or in assembler languages, An example of their operations is reading a record from a file specified only by name, and the other is exponentiation. In short, these high- level programming languages are the national mechanisms used to implement software products using a machine-independent representation of the solution.

Languages with a degree of specialization towards a particular problem area are known as problem-oriented languages. The languages LIPS horror list processing and SNOBOL for corrector string manipulation could be placed here, along with COGO for civil engineering or APT for machine - tool control.

Non-algorithmic source languages differ widely in their areas of application. Examples include specifications of reporting programs and of storing programs. The former specifications include descriptions of data fields and report formula; the latter includes descriptions of data records, keys, and desired sequences. In the main operating system, the command language provides another example of a nonalgorithmic source language.


The following is a list of the popular high-level language in which programs can be developed;


  • BASIC
  • FORTRAN
  • COBOL
  • Pascal
  • C
  • Algol
  • PL/1
  • APL


There are a lot more languages which are useful for development of programs for different purposes. Each of these languages is used for solving problem and developing program from different application areas: real-time, on-line, off-line accounting, scientific calculations and so on.

Typical control structures that are supported by high-level language include the repetition of group instructions until a specified condition is satisfied. Often but to necessarily, these languages are designed to resemble a natural language, such as English, more closely than could an assembler level language.

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Saturday, September 5, 2020

National Fellowships for Students, KVPY Fellowship-2020

Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojna offers National Fellowships for Students interested in Research Careers  KVPY Fellowship-2020

KVPY Fellowship-2020


Stream SA: Students enrolled in XI Standard (Science Subjects) during the academic year 2020-21 and aspiring to join an undergraduate program in basic sciences (B.Sc /B.S/ B.Stat./B.Math./Int M.Sc./ Int M.S.) during the academic year 2022-23

Stream SX: Students enrolled in +2 / XII standard (Science Subjects) during the academic year 2020-21 and aspiring to join an undergraduate program in basic sciences (B.Sc./B.S/B.Stat./ B.Math./Int. M.Sc./Int.M.S.) during the academic year 2020-22

Stream SB: Students enrolled in First Year B.Sc./ B.S./ B. Stat./ B.Math./Int. M.Sc./Int.M.S. in basic sciences during the academic year 2020-21

Important Dates

Start of Online submission of Application: 06th September 2020

Last Date for closing of online Application: 05th October 2020

KVPY Aptitude Test: 31st January 2021

For more information visit: http://www.kvpy.iisc.ernet.in/main/index.htm

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AIIMS New Delhi Entrance Examination for DM/M.Ch/MD (Hospital Administration) & Fellowship Programme January2021

 All India Institute of Medical Sciences. New Delhi invites online applications for Entrance Examination leading to admission in post-Doctoral [DM/M.Ch. (3years)/MD (Hospital Administration) & Fellowship Programme] of AIIMS, New Delhi for January 2021 session.


DM/M/Ch.(3 years) / MD (Hosptial Administration)

Institute: AIIMS – New Delhi and other AIIMS

Registration Starts from 10.09.2020 to 30.09.2020 at 5:00 PM



Fellowship Programme

Institutes AIIMS – New Delhi only

Registration Starts from 11.09.2020 01.10.2020 at 5:00 PM


How to Apply: Interested candidate dates have to apply Online on the official website https://www.aiimsexams.org/


For Prospectus, detailed information, etc. please visit the website www.aiimsexam.org. All applicants are required to visit the website regularly since all subsequent Corrigendum/Addendum/Updates will only be uploaded on the website.


For more information visit: www.aiimsexam.org
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Friday, September 4, 2020

GENERATION OF COMPUTER HARDWARE

 A detailed note on the chronology of development of the computers is provided in the introduction. In the following sections a brief discussion of the technical aspects of the various generations of the computers are given.


Zeroth Generation

For centuries, mankind was using simple tools like a abacus to do simple addition and subtraction. But the first ever machine to do addition and subtraction has been built by the French scientific Blaise pascal in 1642.  In his Honour we have a programe language named PASCAL. He built whole machine using gear and powered by hand operated crank. Later machines were built do to multiplication, division and other complex operation. All these machine were built only on mechanical components. These machine are called Zeroth Generation Computers.



First Generation Computers

With the invention of vacuum tubes, the next generation of computers were built using vacuum tubes. The first ever electronic computers was built in 1946. This built using vacuum tube technology and was named ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computers). ENIAC and all successive computers developed using a vacuum tubes are called First Generation Computers.


Second Generation Computers

Transistor was invented in 1948. All the computers which were built using transistor were called as Second Generation Computers. The earliest computers that was developed using transistor technology was PDP-1, by a company called DEC, at the same time another company, International Business Machines, popularly known as IBM, also developed a computer by using transistors, which is called IBM 7090.


Third Generation Computers

The third generation computers used Integrated Circuits are small packages containing dozens of transistors built in. with this Integrated circuits, it became possible to built mall as well as fast computers. One of the earlier models are IBM 360 and PDP-11.


Forth Generation Computers

The third generation computers are VLSI (very large scale integration). The VLSI technology helped to have millions of transistors on a single chip. All modern day computer fall under this class.


Computer System Today

Modern computer system very in physical size from those of room-size to those that can rest on the usr’s lap. While the smallest processor can be used by just one person at a time, large system can simultaneously serve hundred users.

Mainframe are large scale general purpose computer with main memory capabilities in server million words, and secondary storage capacity in several billion words. They have no more CPU with about 100 million instructions per seconds speeds. The data width in these computers is 19/32/64 bits. They support a large number of terminal (up to 1000 or more).

Micros are the smallest units, utilizing microprocessor. Through early micros had very less memory capacities of the order of 256k words, only an 8 bit data width and speeds of the order of 100 thousand instructions per second the present day micros  have large data and address bus widths, and can have up to 4 GB of main memory. Also the present day microcomputers, and especially in the design of microprocessors, have made the boundary between the minis and micros blur. Now microcomputer systems are available which would far out-perform the mini in speed, capacity and flexibility 


Superiority Of Modern computers Than Mechanical Calculating machine due to following reasons: 

Due to use of superior to mechanical  calculating machine gears and wheels, the problems of wear, backlark, hysteresis etc are fully eliminated 

Since computer system operates at electronics speed i.e. speed of lights, speed of modern computers are very fast than mechanical calculating machine.

Mechanical calculating devices can perform only limited arithmetic operations, whereas  modern computers can be perform logic operations and complex arithmetic operations by writing relevant programs 


Computer Components

Computers are made up of electronic devices and circuits .digital circuits use binary logic symbolically signified as 0 and 1 states. Digital devices are all packaged in digital circuits implements binary logic. The binary logic is implemented using different types of Logic circuits DLT, TTL, CMOS, ECL,HMOS, are some of the popular logic circuits  technologies used for building digital devices. These logic elements are used to construct gates, counters and shift-registers which are the basically building blocks of the digital device. Using the basic units, the various integrated circuits(IC) are made   

 The technology of packing enormous number of these logic units into one integrated circuits is referred to as Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).IC’s are basically standard circuit elements which do a particular functions. For example, an interrupt controller IC (8259) does the function of queuing-up of the various interrupts and present them one-by-one to the microcomputer chip. 


The processor of computer is also called Central Processing Units (CPU). Thus fetches instructions from the memory, decodes the instructions to determine what operations are to be performed and executes the instructions by performing the operations. The operations that are performed during instruction execution consists of moving data and performing computation on the computations. In order to perform the operations, the processor must sometimes send control signals to other devices within the computer. This is done through the ports.


In mainframe and microcomputer the (CPU) parts are essentially different devices and they are wired together by high speed circuitry. Microcomputers have the parts of its (CPU) inside a single IC chip known as the microprocessor. A microprocessor is an IC chip which contain the control unit, the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), the register and the input-output (I/O) ports.


In digital computers, the logic of the following is based on switching of the binary elements form the conducting state of non-conducting state. Such a switching source of pulses is the heart of any digital computer. The supplied of oscillating circuits which are referred to as clock. The clock also know as the system Clock, supplies electric pulses continuously; each pulses is called one cycle. The system clock frequency is specified in Mega Hertz (MHz). The frequency of the system clock is one indicator of the speed of the computer as whole because each element of the computer synchronizes  with the clock pulses, and we can say computer is driven by the clock. The chips that require a regular timing signal can obtain it from the system clock generator by dividing the base frequency by a constant to contain the frequency they need to accomplish their tasks.


The discrete electronic components are resistors, capacitors, indicators and transistors etc. these basic component are used to design devices and circuit, computer uses mainly the digital circuits. A part from the CPU, a computer contains various other circuits which link the CPU is the peripheral devices like keyboard, floppy drives and hard disks etc. 


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Simple Introduction of Computers

 Computers are wonder-machines which are now employed in every walk of life and all of us now understand that without their knowledge we will be handicapped in our life & carrier. The oxford dictionary defines computer as:


“Electronic apparatus for analyzing or storing data, making calculations or controlling machinery .” 


From simple machines which could handle and store very small amount of data, computers have grown very powerful, to be used in different applications. And with continuing miniaturization of computer components using integrated Circuit technology, computers with tremendous processing, storage, display and remote communications capabilities are available on desktop & palmtop models, thanks to the Japanese computer companies.


Despite the increasing popularly of computers, there are many misconceptions about them.


A typical misconception that prevails even among top- rung managerial and technical persons is that computes by themselves can do anything you want, and give out whatever you want I the touch of a button. Also one hears statement like “you just have to program only, no? How much time it takes? Feed it now and get the reports….immediately”. This is atypical order from a boss who has not understood the functioning of computers to the annoyance of his subordinate.



Computer are the fast machines, no doubt. But similar to a newly recruited employee, the complete description of steps that need to be taken to solve a program has to be programmed into it. For already made programs, tested order time, data is feeding is important before they can give results out. But many programs need a lot of data to be fed into the computer before the reports/outputs.  Can be taken. For example, making a graph in HPG, taking a balance sheet out from an accounts package and simulate day-to-day office activities need data to be fed. Hence the speedy of entry of data and the amount of complexity involved in the associated calculations and the type of output required, all influence the time taken for any output from the computer.

Computers are fast but they do not do magic. They can only process the data you have entered and give outputs of the processed values. For example, even if a standard accounting package to give a P & L Account statement, then the various accounts head have to be heads have to be defined first, previous year end balances of each account head entered next and then all vouchers of transactions have to be entered up-to-data. Well! This just means one thing: Computers are fast machines which can process large amount of data and give outputs in various exhaustive and presentable forms. And all these the computer does in a much lesser time than a human being would take to do them.

The process of feeding data into the computer is largely a manual process which takes more time. Now techniques like scanning documents directly into the memory are available but they cannot completely replace manual entry of data. Taking outputs like printouts and sliders/photographs, storing data inside computers and retrieving them are essentially done with electromagnetically device like printers, floppy drives etc. Hence those processes are inherently time consuming.  

The processor today are very powerful with capabilities to process up to tens of millions of instructions per second. Hence the actual computing process takes very less time unless the calculation logic is very complex, like that of weather forecasting or if the data base to be processed is very huge like salary accounting for a company of 10,000  employees. So through the processing as such is first because of complexity of logic & large size of database the total processing time can be high. Added to this time consumed by the process of printing storage/retrieval, data transfer from remote terminals etc.
Selection of computer is done for any organization by keeping in mind the speed of response required finally (vs.) all the above factors. Also faster and powerful the machine more is their cost. Hence, a judicious selection requires a serious analysis of these factors of usage and cost.

When an organization is planning to use computer foe its operation s, then it is said that the organization is going for computerization. The organization implements computer system for the whole organization or for individual departments/activities. A computer system can comprise of a single large computer with many small stand-alone computers. The terminals or the stand-alone computers can be placed all at one centralized place or they can be placed in various points or usage. The terminals of a large system are basically input/output device which do not process. Only the main computer process data. This means, the number of users simultaneously using the main machine from different terminals decides the speed of operation of the main computer. But the main computer ensures centralization of data and programs. The stand-alone machines can also be connected to each others with a central computer called.

This allow centralization of data as well as local processing. This arrangement is called Network. Each computer connected is called a Node. If machines inside the same premises are connected then it is Local Area Network (LAN). If outstation computers are also connected then it is a Wide Area Network (WAN). Nodes, server and networking hardware are to be chosen based on the consideration . If the company’s various activities are all integrated by information through computer Network then it is called Enterprises-wide- Networking. If different departments are computerized but not inter-linked, then those are called Islands of information Automation.

If data and information of company are stored at one place, say the serve, and all the others input and output only then it is a Centralized Database system. If data/information   departments are kept in their computers but made available to all in the network, then it is Distributed Database system. Generally, the software and package are chosen having this in mind.
  
Any computer network is a combination of individual computers, the connecting network hardware, network software, application software especially the database system. Thus the die Company, and the purchase of individual computers, Application software, networking hardware & software should be done so that they fit into global computerization plan of the company.
 
Computer system generally for the following functions. Office automation, Inventory production& purchase management, computer-aided design, computer-aided Engineering and individual or integrating 

Individual computer together from the Integrated computer system of the organization. These computers are of the following generic types: super computers, Mainframe computer, Mini computers, workstations & Micro computers

A supercomputer is the most powerful computer available at given time. These machines are built to process huge amount of information and to do so very quickly. For example, scientist build models of complex process and simulate the process on a supercomputer. The largest type of computer in common use in the mainframe. Today’s mainframe computer are costly one. It use to common for mainframe computers to Occupy entire rooms or even an entire floor of a high-rise building. It’s interesting to note that, at first there were just computer. It wasn’t until completely new hinds of computers came along that there had to be another term to distinguish the various types. When Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) began shipping its PDP series computers in the early 1960’s, the press dubbed these machines minicomputers, because of their small size compared to others computer of the day. Much to DEC’s charging, the name stuck, (Later, when even smaller computers build around microprocessors came put, they were first called microcomputer and microcomputers, but eventually were named personal computers)

Between minicomputer and microcomputers—in terms of processing power --- is a class of computers known as workstations. A workstation look like a personal computer and is typically used by only one person, much as is a personal computer. Workstation differ significantly from their microcomputer cousins in two areas. Internally workstations are constructed differently than microcomputers. They’re generally based on another philosophy of CPU design called reduced instruction set computing (RISC), which results in faster processing of instructions. Many people use the terms workstation to refer to any computer or terminal that is connected to another computer. Although this usage was  once a common meaning of terms, it has became outdated. When people use the terms personal computer and microcomputers, they mean the small computers that are commonly found  in officers , classrooms, and homes.

Computer have a system software including operation systems and device drivers, which control the computer physically. Operation system(OS) control and coordinate the functions inside the computer whereas devices drivers help the OS to control external devices  added-on Windows is an extension to the DOS operation system giving the users a Graphical User Interface(GUI) and multitasking, (running multiple applications parallel but not simultaneously)

Application software run on top of the operation systems or their extended GUIs. These are programs developed to meet a specific category of functions and can be off-the-shelf package .now a- day mostly application developed using tools making them easy to use.

The more computer systems are becoming easy-to-use with their ergonomically designs, user friendly software and lesser costs, the easier it is for the world to use computers everywhere. 
Introduction of computer in all walks of life has made the world to function much faster and accurate. The pace of social life has made the world function much faster and computers have contributed a lot to this. In sharp contrast to the popular belief that computers create unemployment, computers really do the dumb&  repetitive jobs much faster making industrial growth progress faster. Hence people are given a chance to get better & challenging  opportunities so that their standard of living rises. Not to mention it, the computer industry by itself has generated employment & business opportunities for lakhs of people, thereby creating a regenerating effect on the country as a whole and industry in particular.

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Thursday, September 3, 2020

PRIME MINISTER’S EMPLOYMENT GENERATION PROGRAMME 2020-21

 KHADI AND VILLAGE INDUSTRIES COMMISSION

SCO NO. 3003 – 04, SECTOR-22D, CHANDIGARH


A flagship scheme of the Government of India providing self-employment opportunities in rural and urban across to aspiration youth across the country by promoting entrepreneurship.
PMEGP


BENEFITS


Financial assistance is provided for setting up new micro enterprises.

Maximum Project Cost – Rs 25 lakh for manufacturing sector Rs. 10 lakh for services sector. 

Subsidy – 15% to 35% of the Project Cost.

Beneficiary contribution - 5% to 10% of the Project Cost.

Second financial Assistance for well performing units under PMEGP/MUDRA/REGP for expansion/upgradation:-

- Upto Rs 1 crore for Manufacturing

- Upto Rs 25 lakh for services

- Subsidy from 15% to 20%


ELIGIBILITY


Individual’s above 18 years

Self Help Groups (SHG).

Minimum educational qualification of 8th Class pass for projects costing more than Rs. 10 lakh (Manufacturing sector) & Rs 5 lakh (Service sector)


ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME


For Industrial Documents/ Project Report and Online Entrepreneurship Development programme.

Please visit www.udyami.org.in www.kvic.udyami.org.in download Mobile app ‘UDYAMI’.


How to Apply: Interested candidates can apply online at www.kviconline.gov.in/pmegpeportal


For more details of the scheme, refer to the scheme guidelines available on www.msme.gov.in & www.kviconline.gov.in/pmegpeportal


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Craftsmen Training Scheme (CTS) Admission Notice 2020-21

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF TRAINING

Minister of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship 


Admission to courses under Craftsmen Training Scheme (CTS) at NSTIS will be made through merit basis. 


Eligibility qualification: NTC/NAC (NCVT certificate in relevant trade) or Diploma / Degree from recognized Board of Technical Education/University or equivalent.



Entrance Examination Fee:

Rs. 500/- for General and all other candidates

Rs. 300/- for SC / ST, PH and Women candidates


Payment of Examination Fee:

Candidates need to remit an application fee in any of the modes using Net Banking/Credit Card/Debit Card.


Reservation of seats:

As per Central Government Reservation Norms

For Registration to the CTS courses, application are invited on www.nimionlineadmission.in from the eligible candidates w.e.f. from 7.09.2020 to 16.09.2020


Note: The candidate has to give the name of five institute for admission as per his/her preference. 

All the details will be available on the website www.nimi.gov.in  

Issues on Online admission : nimionlineadmission@gmail.com

For Queries Contact : 8920589150
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